Dust collectors that use liquid are known as wet scrubbers. In these systems, the scrubbing liquid (usually water) comes into contact with a gas stream containing dust particles. Greater contact of the gas and liquid streams yields higher dust removal efficiency.
There is a large variety of wet scrubbers; however, all have one of three basic configurations:
- Gas-humidification - The gas-humidification process agglomerates fine particles, increasing the bulk, making collection easier.
- Gas-liquid contact - This is one of the most important factor affecting collection efficiency. The particle and droplet come into contact by four primary mechanisms:
- Inertial impaction - When water droplets placed in the path of a dust-laden gas stream, the stream separates and flows around them. Due to inertia, the larger dust particles will continue on in a straight path, hit the droplets, and become encapsulated.
- Interception - Finer particles moving within a gas stream do not hit droplets directly but brush against and adhere to them.
- Diffusion - When liquid droplets are scattered among dust particles, the particles are deposited on the droplet surfaces by Brownian movement, or diffusion. This is the principal mechanism in the collection of submicrometre dust particles.
- Condensation nucleation - If a gas passing through a scrubber is cooled below the dewpoint, condensation of moisture occurs on the dust particles. This increase in particle size makes collection easier.
- Gas-liquid separation - Regardless of the contact mechanism used, as much liquid and dust as possible must be removed. Once contact is made, dust particulates and water droplets combine to form agglomerates. As the agglomerates grow larger, they settle into a collector.
The "cleaned" gases are normally passed through a mist eliminator (demister pads) to remove water droplets from the gas stream. The dirty water from the scrubber system is either cleaned and discharged or recycled to the scrubber. Dust is removed from the scrubber in a clarification unit or a drag chain tank. In both systems solid material settles on the bottom of the tank. A drag chain system removes the sludge and deposits in into a dumpster or stockpile.
The ten primary types of scrubber divided in two categories :
Wetted Surface Scrubber
Distributed Liquid Scrubber